Accessing fields with the HL7 Kotlin DSL

Obtaining fields is similar to obtaining groups and segments except that fields are often referred to by number instead of by name. Fields are accessed like an array field. Components in a composite field are accessed like a two-dimensional array. Subcomponents are accessed like a three-dimensional array.

// MSH-3 = sending application composite field
val composite = message["MSH"][3]

// MSH-3-2 = universal ID primitive field
val primitive = message["MSH"][3][2]  

It is also possible to navigate by specifying the field names instead of the position number, but in Kotlin this requires the message to know the exact type at compile time :

val message: ADT_A01 = loadHl7(context, "/msg-01.hl7")
val primitive = message.msh.sendingApplication.universalIDType

However, that along with the change of internal message structures, individual field names change between HL7 versions although they refer to the same position of the field in a segment. If you don’t know the version of the HL7 message in advance, better use the more concise index notation:

// only works for HL7 v2.2 and 2.3 messages
val messageType1 = message.msh.messageType.messageType

// only works for HL7 v2.4\+ messages
val messageType2 = message.msh.messageType.messageCode

// works for all HL7 versions
val messageType3 = message["MSH"][9][1]                       

In case the field is repeating, this simple syntax only returns the first repetition

Field values

Corresponding to HAPI, variables render to their string encoding by implementing an appropriate encode() method (just like complete messages). String values from primitive fields are obtained by value()

// Returns ADT^A01
val hl7Event = message["MSH"][9].encode()

// Returns ADT
val messageType = message["MSH"][9][1].value

// Also returns ADT
val messageType = message["MSH"][9].value

// Returns ADT_A01 if MSH[9][3] is empty
val messageType = message["MSH"][9][3].getValueOr("ADT_A01")  // or valueOr("ADT_A01")

// Returns the value of a subcomponent
val street = message["PATIENT_RESULT"]["PATIENT"]["PID"][11][1][1].value


Kotlin lets you destructure composite instances into components:

val(event, trigger, structure) = message["MSH"][9]
println(event.value) // prints ADT

Null values

The HL7 DSL treats explicit HL7 null values (two double quotes “”, cf. HL7 2.5, Final, Section 2.5.3) in a special way.

  • value() and encode() returns the double quotes
  • value2() convert double quotes into an empty string
  • isNullValue() returns true, if the original value of the field is “”